Amyloid Peptide Induced Neuroinflammation Increases the P2X7 Receptor Expression in Microglial Cells, Impacting on Its Functionality
Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of senile plaques composed of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal loss and neuroinflammation. Previous works have revealed that extracellular ATP, through its selective receptor P2X7 (P2X7R), is essential to neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity induced by Aβ.
* P2Rs involved in neuronal/neuroglial developmental processes. * P2Rs associated with schizophrenia, fetal alcohol and autism spectrum disorder. * Neuroinflammation and gut microflora underlying potential pathology of CNS.
Epilepsy encompasses a heterogeneous group of neurological syndromes which are characterized by recurrent seizures affecting over 60 million people worldwide. Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are mainly designed to target ion channels and/or GABA or glutamate receptors.
The regulation of proteostasis in glial cells by nucleotide receptors is key in acute neuroinflammation | The FASEB Journal
The disturbances of cellular proteostasis caused by the alteration in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) have been proposed as a common mechanism underlying several neural pathologies that involve a neuroinflammatory process. As we have previously reported that the nucleotide receptor P2Y purinoceptor 2 (P2Y 2R) regulates the proteasomal catalytic activities, we wonder whether this receptor is involved in the UPS disturbances associated with the neuroinflammation process.
The adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes A 2A and A 2B are rhodopsin-like G s protein-coupled receptors whose expression is highly regulated under pathological, e.g. hypoxic, ischemic and inflammatory conditions. Both receptors play important roles in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are blocked by caffeine, and have now become major drug targets in immuno-oncology.
Haploinsufficient TNAP Mice Display Decreased Extracellular ATP Levels and Expression of Pannexin-1 Channels
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare heritable metabolic bone disease caused by hypomorphic mutations in the ALPL (in human) or Akp2 (in mouse) gene, encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme. In addition to skeletal and dental malformations, severe forms of HPP are also characterized by the presence of spontaneous seizures.
MicroRNA-22 Controls Aberrant Neurogenesis and Changes in Neuronal Morphology After Status Epilepticus
Prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) may drive hippocampal dysfunction and epileptogenesis, at least partly, through an elevation in neurogenesis, dysregulation of migration and aberrant dendritic arborization of newly-formed neurons. MicroRNA-22 was recently found to protect against the development of epileptic foci, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood.
Bi-directional genetic modulation of GSK-3β exacerbates hippocampal neuropathology in experimental status epilepticus
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is ubiquitously expressed throughout the brain and involved in vital molecular pathways such as cell survival and synaptic reorganization and has emerged as a potential drug target for brain diseases. A causal role for GSK-3, in particular the brain-enriched GSK-3β isoform, has been demonstrated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's, and in psychiatric diseases.
A novel BAC transgenic mouse model reveals glial restriction of P2X7 expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Two subclasses of ligand-gated ion channels (ASIC3 and P2X3) are both present at sensory neurons and might be therefore subject to receptor crosstalk. Here authors use electrophysiology, biochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation to show that the two ion channels interact and affect P2X3 currents.
ATP released from astrocytes modulates action potential threshold and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the neonatal rat prefrontal cortex
Regulation of Hippocampal 5-HT Release by P2X7 Receptors in Response to Optogenetic Stimulation of Median Raphe Terminals of Mice
Serotonergic and glutamatergic neurons of median raphe region (MRR) play a pivotal role in the modulation of affective and cognitive functions. These neurons synapse both onto themselves and remote cortical areas. P2X7 receptors ( P2rx7) are ligand gated ion channels expressed by central presynaptic excitatory nerve terminals and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments; however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet.
Heterozygosity for the Mood Disorder-Associated Variant Gln460Arg Alters P2X7 Receptor Function and Sleep Quality
A single nucleotide polymorphism substitution from glutamine (Gln, Q) to arginine (Arg, R) at codon 460 of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has repeatedly been associated with mood disorders. The P2X7R-Gln460Arg variant per se is not compromised in its function. However, heterologous expression of P2X7R-Gln460Arg together with wild-type P2X7R has recently been demonstrated to impair receptor function.
Modulation of P2X7 purinergic receptor activity by extracellular Zn2+ in cultured mouse hippocampal astroglia
The P2X7R protein, a P2 type purinergic receptor functioning as a non-selective cation channel, is expressed in different cell types of the central ne...